Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains...Romania

Bijuterii ale Romaniei in Patrimoniul UNESCO (V)Whole settlements and fortifications Sureanu Mountains is known as the Dacian Fortresses Orastie Mountains, mostly concentrated in the river basin, which became a tributary of the river Mures. Here we find, on an area of approximately 200 km2, numerous stone walls fortification system component Costesti-Dacian fortress, Costesti-Blidaru, Luncani Red-Stone, Directed Sarmizegetusa, Banita and Capalna.

Stretching to the foot of towering peaks, Dacian settlements and fortifications are equally amazing chance for visitors and experts in archeology, impressing the site well thought through and the monumental character variety of forms. Most civil construction, made of perishable materials, have not survived, so that an unauthorized person can hardly imagine their configuration and their number now. Others, however, wholly or partly constructed of stone blocks were preserved well enough that he could give an indication of their former greatness. The crystalline schists predominate Sureanu Massif - brittle and hard rock carving - so that the limestone for construction of Dacian fortresses was exploited and brought about dozens of kilometers, Magura Hill, located east of Calan and andesitic in Bejan career at Deva.

These vestiges Dacian unique in Europe and even throughout the ancient world, shows striking similarities with other sites around the pre-Roman Dacia. They testify about a flourishing civilization, superior in many respects to those developed by other European nations in the regions outside the ancient Roman Empire. In all cities find traditional strongholds systems combined (wave, palisade) with shaped stone. The latter, inspired by the Hellenistic world, were lifted from the mid century BC, with the participation of artisans coming from the Greek cities on the western shore of the Black Sea, demonstrated and points / groups Greek letters written on some blocks. Hellenistic wall of the wall consists of two carefully carved limestone blocks, which alternated with transverse blocks (tun) on the wall direction. The space between two rows of blocks filled with emplecton (crumbled stone and earth) well beaten. To avoid any lateral thrust to the emplectonului perfect compaction, block gutters are digging in "dovetail", where sat the heads of wooden beams which united both the wall. Dacian Wall (Murus dacicus) reproduces the Hellenistic wall, but except butisele. Dacian Fortresses were raised around shrines of stone and wood. Identified two types of religious buildings: circular and rectangular. The material used was made in this case from Magura Calan and Bejan.

Archaeological research in light of civil settlements, farms, workshops, ways, roads that cross the mountain peaks and traversing waterways, aqueducts terracotta, sewage systems, water tanks, sacred spaces, impressive fortifications - from the traditional , made of wood and earth walls, the strong fortress, surrounded by walls of limestone. In all these sites was found a large quantity of diverse archaeological material: pottery, tools and metal objects, weapons, bronze and glass objects, coins, pieces made of precious metals, etc.. Territory on which stood the capital of Dacia was inhabited sporadically and before the end of II century BC, the oldest discoveries (made from Cioclovina cave) dating from the Upper Palaeolithic period. Then, a few thousand years later, he established the first community in the area Indoeuropeans, Culture bearers Cojofeni Thracian ancestors.

Thracian tribes, the northern branch, the Geto-Dacians that was individualized by some peculiarities of language and the belief in immortality, configuring a tribal union located on the middle of Mures. By the end of II century BC and early next century, the center faction is in the city-fortress Costesti and draws its economic vigor, thus implicitly political power of manoasa Mures Valley, with its agricultural land excellent Metalliferous Mountains, with their gold deposits, and the Massif Sureanu rich in metal ores. Management reached sometime before the year 82 BC, managed to gather under Burebista scepter or Daco-Getian most tribal unions and to found a kingdom stretched from the Balkans to the Carpathian Mountains and forests in Moravia (the Czech Republic today) up on the shore of the Dnieper, the Boristene and Olbia. All Burebista concealed older kingdom and built other fortifications. They watched the main commercial roads of Dacia and to close those that crossed the Carpathians. Fortification work was continued by descendants Burebista so, within a period of two centuries, the kingdom if it was endowed with some 100 fortresses, of which 91 still operating in Decebalus.

Burebista reign (about 1982-1944 BC) Deceneu priest and close collaborator of the king, he stayed on the holy mountain of the Dacians, Kogaion, which was founded Sarmizegetusa. Although the vast dominion of Burebista was fragmented in the first four, then five parts, with the center core kingdom lasted Orastie Mountains. From there he started last and unification of Geto-Dacians, the work of his predecessors Diurpaneus, called Decebal - and that name remained in history. Burebista death, the leadership took a Deceneus and he also moved the capital from Sarmizegetusa Directed Costesti-fortress, the sacred mountain. From then on - or no later than the time of Comosicus, Deceneu successor - Dacian kings have accumulated three supreme power in the state: political, military and religious, which was perpetuated and during Decebal.

After the War of Trajan, took place in 101-102, Decebal was forced to partially dismantled fortifications, including those of capital, but in the years 103-104 which has rebuilt and even some of them developed. During the War of Trajan, 105-106, and immediately after that, all the Dacian fortresses were burned and destroyed by the Romans, except Sarmizegetusa. The latter remained a garrison of the first Romanian to repair the damage caused to wall during the siege, after which the city expanded to the dimensions that we know today. Garrison - a detachment of the Fourth Legion, Flavia Felix - remained quartered here throughout the reign of the Dacian fortresses are known Traian.Vestigiile natives from time immemorial, as a frequent point and place names: Castle, fortress, Blidaru, Gradiste, but have come to the knowledge of scholars with interest in history until later. The earliest written mention dates from the second half of XVI century, when it noticed the existence of a city - the fundamentals of sight and stone walls - situated in the mountains, not far from Orastie.

After further centuries of silence, the discovery of gold coin in 1784-1785 and especially after 1802, attracted the attention of authorities, an event followed in the years 1837 and 1847, by visiting some of the ruins to learn. Therefore, in the early twentieth century, Gabor said that the Gradistea Muncelului Teglas was the last refuge of Decebal. Systematic excavations led by professional archaeologists, but only began in 1924 under the baton of Professor Dimitrie Mihail Teodorescu, University of Cluj. Since then, with interruptions variables, they have continued under the leadership of Daicoviciu Constantine, Hadrian and John Glodariu Daicoviciu, so today known location of all remains important, even if they have not yet been fully investigated. Dacian fortresses ruins proving the existence of a flourishing economy based on widespread use of iron tools and the exchange activities, in particular with the Pontus Greeks and Roman Euxinus. Dacian capital defense system was the strongest and one of the most sophisticated defensive structures of the Dacian state.

Fortresses area was both the first (101-102) and in the second (105-106) war with the Roman Empire, the scene of fierce battles. But knowing the economic power of Dacia and skillful use of natural obstacles in the fight offered by steep mountainous terrain and impressive fortification system, we can find an explanation for the duration of military operations and prolonged resistance in front of people if invaders. Study sites and archaeological remains can shape an objective view of the level of civilization attained by the Dacians during confrontations with the Romans and offers the possibility of comparison with that achieved by other European nations at that time. Recovery of all tourist and scientific Dacian fortresses should clarify their legal status, their good management, and achieving key goals in the fields of infrastructure, expansion of archaeological research and conservation / restoration program remains on a long nationalized.
source: descopera